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New Jersey Default Judgment Rules

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2013 NEW JERSEY DEFAULT JUDGMENT RULES

RULE 4:40. Motion For Judgment
4:40-1. Motion for Judgment at Trial
A motion for judgment, stating specifically the grounds therefor, may be made by a party either at the close of all the evidence or at the close of the evidence offered by an opponent. If the motion is made prior to the close of all the evidence and is denied, the moving party may then offer evidence without having reserved the right to do so. A motion for judgment which is denied is not a waiver of trial by jury even if all parties to the action have so moved.
Note: Source-R.R. 4:51-1.
4:40-2. Reservation of Decision on Motion; Motion for Judgment Notwithstanding the Verdict
 (a) Reservation of Decision. The court may reserve decision on a motion for judgment made at the close of all the evidence, submit the case to the jury and then decide the motion either before or within 10 days after the verdict, or if no verdict is returned, within 10 days after the jury's discharge. The court may enter judgment in accordance with the motion or in the interest of justice order a new trial.
 (b) Renewal of Motion. If a motion for judgment is denied and the case submitted to the jury, the motion may be renewed in accordance with the procedure prescribed by R. 4:49-1 (new trial) within 20 days after the verdict or the jury's discharge. A motion so renewed may include in the alternative a motion for a new trial, and every motion made by a party for a new trial shall be deemed to include, in the alternative, a renewal of any motion for judgment made by that party at the close of the evidence. If the motion is granted on renewal thereof, the court shall nevertheless rule on the motion for a new trial determining whether it should be granted if the judgment is thereafter reversed or vacated. Briefs shall be submitted with the renewal of the motion for judgment. Failure to renew the motion shall not preclude appellate review of the denial of the motion made at trial.
 (c) Motion of Party Aggrieved by Setting Aside. Within 20 days after service of an order setting aside a verdict or judgment under this rule, the party thereby aggrieved may move for a new trial or renew a motion for judgment.
Note: Source-R.R. 4:51-2(a)(b)(c)(d)(e); paragraphs (b) and (c) amended July 13, 1994 to be effective September 1, 1994; paragraphs (b) and (c) amended July 5, 2000 to be effective September 5, 2000.
RULE 4:42. Judgment; Orders; Damages; Costs
4:42-1. Form; Settlement
 (a) Form; Contents. A judgment or order shall not contain a recital of the pleadings or the record of prior proceedings. It shall, however, include the following:
• (1) A designation of the subject of the judgment or order (i.e., Summary Judgment Dismissing Complaint, Order Modifying Alimony);
• (2) The date or dates on which the matter was heard or submitted;
• (3) The appearances of counsel and parties appearing pro se;
• (4) A separate numbered paragraph for each separate substantive provision of the judgment or order;
• (5) The effective date of the judgment or order or of each provision if the effective date of any provision is different from the date of entry;
• (6) A notation of whether the matter was opposed or unopposed as required by R. 1:6-2(a); and
• (7) The notation prescribed by R. 1:6-2(f) respecting findings and conclusions and the annexation of a statement of reasons if required by that rule or by R. 1:7-4.
 (b) Settlement by Motion or Consent. Except as otherwise provided by paragraphs (c) and (d) of this rule, by other rule or by law, and except for ex parte matters, no judgment or order shall be signed by the court unless the form thereof has been settled on motion on notice to all parties affected thereby who are not in default for failure to appear, or unless the written approval of such attorneys or parties to the form thereof is endorsed thereon. Formal written judgments or orders shall be presented to the court for execution within 10 days after its decision is made known, unless such time is enlarged for good cause.
 (c) Settlement on Notice. In lieu of settlement by motion or consent, the party proposing the form of judgment or order may forward the original thereof to the judge who heard the matter and shall serve a copy thereof on every other party not in default together with a notice advising that unless the judge and the proponent of the judgment or order are notified in writing of specific objections thereto within 5 days after such service, the judgment or order may be signed in the judge's discretion. If no such objection is timely made, the judge may forthwith sign the judgment or order. If objection is made, the matter may be listed for hearing in the discretion of the court.
 (d) Form of Consent Judgments and Orders. The court may enter a consent judgment or order without the signatures of all counsel of record and parties pro se who have filed a responsive pleading or who have otherwise entered an appearance in the action, provided the form of judgment or order contains the recital that all parties have in fact consented to the entry of the judgment or order in the form submitted. If any party to be bound by the consent judgment has not filed a responsive pleading or entered an appearance in the action, the consent judgment must bear the signature of each such party or such party's attorney, indicating consent to the form and entry of the judgment. No supporting papers shall be required for the entry of a consent judgment unless the court specifically finds good cause to require the filing of such submissions. Consent judgments may be entered in accordance with this rule at any time following service of the complaint, whether or not an answer or any other responsive pleading has been served or filed.
 (e) Submission and Filing of Orders and Judgments. An original and one copy of all forms of orders and judgments shall be submitted to the judge together with a self-addressed, stamped envelope. The judge signing the order or judgment shall file the original in accordance with R. 1:5-6(b), and the copy shall be returned by the judge to the attorney submitting the order or judgment. The proponent may transmit the copy to the Clerk of the Superior Court, together with the fee prescribed by N.J.S.A. 22A:2-7, for appropriate disposition pursuant to R. 4:101. In matrimonial matters such additional copies of the orders shall be submitted as required by the court.
Note: Source-R.R. 4:55-1; paragraph (b) amended July 29, 1977 to be effective September 6, 1977; new paragraph (c) adopted July 16, 1981 to be effective September 14, 1981; former paragraph (a) redesignated paragraph (b) with caption and text amended, former paragraph (b) redesignated paragraph (c), former paragraph (c) redesignated paragraph (e), and new paragraphs (a) and (d) adopted November 7, 1988 to be effective January 2, 1989; paragraphs (d) and (e) amended July 13, 1994 to be effective September 1, 1994; paragraphs (c), (d) and (e) amended June 28, 1996 to be effective September 1, 1996.
4:42-2. Judgment Upon Multiple Claims
If an order would be subject to process to enforce a judgment pursuant to R. 4:59 if it were final and if the trial court certifies that there is no just reason for delay of such enforcement, the trial court may direct the entry of final judgment upon fewer than all the claims as to all parties, but only in the following circumstances: (1) upon a complete adjudication of a separate claim; or (2) upon complete adjudication of all the rights and liabilities asserted in the litigation as to any party; or (3) where a partial summary judgment or other order for payment of part of a claim is awarded. In the absence of such direction, any order or form of decision which adjudicates fewer than all the claims as to all the parties shall not terminate the action as to any of the claims, and it shall be subject to revision at any time before the entry of final judgment in the sound discretion of the court in the interest of justice. To the extent possible, application for reconsideration shall be made to the trial judge who entered the order.
Note: Source-R.R. 4:55-2; amended July 16, 1981 to be effective September 14, 1981; amended November 1, 1985 to be effective January 2, 1986; amended November 7, 1988 to be effective January 2, 1989.
4:42-3. Declaratory Judgment
A judgment for declaratory relief, if appropriate, is not precluded by the existence of another appropriate remedy.
Note: Source-R.R. 4:92A (second sentence).
4:42-4. Effect of Unsatisfied Judgment Against One or More of Several Persons Jointly Liable
A judgment against a person jointly liable with another person shall not, unless it is satisfied, bar a judgment against the latter.
Note: Source-R.R. 4:55-3.
4:42-5. Effect of Judgment for Possession
A plaintiff who has obtained a judgment for possession of real property, or the plaintiff's personal representative, is not precluded from bringing a subsequent action for the recovery of mesne profits and damages.
Note: Source-R.R. 4:79-7; amended July 13, 1994 to be effective September 1, 1994.
4:42-6. Effect of Demand for Judgment
Every final judgment, except final judgments by default, shall grant the relief to which the party in whose favor it is rendered is entitled even though that party has not demanded such relief in the pleadings, provided the parties have been given an adequate opportunity to be heard as to the relief granted.
Note: Source-R.R. 4:55-4 (second sentence); amended July 13, 1994 to be effective September 1, 1994.
4:42-7. Damages in Continuing Cause
If damages are to be determined in respect of any continuing cause of action, they shall be determined to the time of the trial or assessment.
Note: Source-R.R. 4:55-5.
4:42-8. Costs
 (a) Parties Entitled. Unless otherwise provided by law, these rules or court order, costs shall be allowed as of course to the prevailing party. The action of the clerk in taxing costs is reviewable by the court on motion.
 (b) Defendants in Certain Actions. Costs shall be allowed against a defaulting defendant in a replevin action only if the defendant has refused to deliver the subject goods and chattels pursuant to written demand therefor made before commencement of the action. Costs shall not be allowed against a defendant in a quiet title action who defaults or files an action disclaiming any right in the subject property, and a defendant in such action who denies in the answer claiming or ever having claimed any right in the subject property may, by court order, be allowed costs.
 (c) Proof of Costs. A party entitled to taxed costs shall file with the clerk of the court an affidavit stating that the disbursements taxable by law and therein set forth have been necessarily incurred and are reasonable in amount, and if incurred for the attendance of witnesses, shall state the number of days of actual attendance and the distance traveled, if mileage is charged. Such costs may include fees paid to a private person serving process pursuant to R. 4:4-3, but not in an amount exceeding allowable sheriff's fees for that service.
 (d) Effective Date. If a court allows costs to be taxed later than 6 months after entry of a judgment or order, or when the judgment or order becomes the subject of review or further litigation later than 6 months after it has been finally disposed of, the judgment for costs shall not take effect before the entry in the civil docket.
Note: Source-R.R. 4:55-6(a)(b)(c)(d)(e), 7:9-6 (last sentence); paragraph (b) amended July 13, 1994 to be effective September 1, 1994; paragraph (c) amended July 12, 2002 to be effective September 3, 2002.
4:42-9. Attorney's Fees
 (a) Actions in Which Fee Is Allowable. No fee for legal services shall be allowed in the taxed costs or otherwise, except
• (1) In a family action, a fee allowance both pendente lite and on final determination may be made pursuant to R. 5:3-5(c).
• (2) Out of a fund in court. The court in its discretion may make an allowance out of such a fund, but no allowance shall be made as to issues triable of right by a jury. A fiduciary may make payments on account of fees for legal services rendered out of a fund entrusted to the fiduciary for administration, subject to approval and allowance or to disallowance by the court upon settlement of the account.
• (3) In a probate action, if probate is refused, the court may make an allowance to be paid out of the estate of the decedent. If probate is granted, and it shall appear that the contestant had reasonable cause for contesting the validity of the will or codicil, the court may make an allowance to the proponent and the contestant, to be paid out of the estate. In a guardianship action, the court may allow a fee in accordance with R. 4:86-4(e) to the attorney for the party seeking guardianship, counsel appointed to represent the alleged incapacitated person, and the guardian ad litem.
• (4) In an action for the foreclosure of a mortgage, the allowance shall be calculated as follows: on all sums adjudged to be paid the plaintiff amounting to $5,000 or less, at the rate of 3.5%, provided, however, that in any action a minimum fee of $75 shall be allowed; upon the excess over $5,000 and up to $10,000 at the rate of 1.5%; and upon the excess over $10,000 at the rate of 1%, provided that the allowance shall not exceed $7,500. If, however, application of the formula prescribed by this rule results in a sum in excess of $7,500, the court may award an additional fee not greater than the amount of such excess on application supported by affidavit of services. In no case shall the fee allowance exceed the limitations of this rule.
• (5) In an action to foreclose a tax certificate or certificates, the court may award attorney's fees not exceeding $500 per tax sale certificate in any in rem or in personam proceeding except for special cause shown by affidavit. If the plaintiff is other than a municipality no attorney's fees shall be allowed unless prior to the filing of the complaint the plaintiff shall have given not more than 120 nor fewer than 30 days' written notice to all parties entitled to redeem whose interests appear of record at the time of the tax sale, by registered or certified mail with postage prepaid thereon addressed to their last known addresses, of intention to file such complaint. The notice shall also contain the amount due on the tax lien as of the day of the notice. A copy of the notice shall be filed in the office of the municipal tax collector.
• (6) In an action upon a liability or indemnity policy of insurance, in favor of a successful claimant.
• (7) As expressly provided by these rules with respect to any action, whether or not there is a fund in court.
• (8) In all cases where attorney's fees are permitted by statute.
 (b) Affidavit of Service. Except in tax and mortgage foreclosure actions, all applications for the allowance of fees shall be supported by an affidavit of services addressing the factors enumerated by RPC 1.5(a). The affidavit shall also include a recitation of other factors pertinent in the evaluation of the services rendered, the amount of the allowance applied for, and an itemization of disbursements for which reimbursement is sought. If the court is requested to consider the rendition of paraprofessional services in making a fee allowance, the affidavit shall include a detailed statement of the time spent and services rendered by paraprofessionals, a summary of the paraprofessionals' qualifications, and the attorney's billing rate for paraprofessional services to clients generally. No portion of any fee allowance claimed for attorneys' services shall duplicate in any way the fees claimed by the attorney for paraprofessional services rendered to the client. For purposes of this rule, "paraprofessional services" shall mean those services rendered by individuals who are qualified through education, work experience or training who perform specifically delegated tasks which are legal in nature under the direction and supervision of attorneys and which tasks an attorney would otherwise be obliged to perform.
 (c) Statement of Fees Received. All applications for the allowance of fees shall state how much had been paid to the attorney (including, in a matrimonial action, the amount, if any, received by the attorney from pendente lite allowances) and what provision, if any, has been made for the payment of fees to the attorney in the future.
 (d) Prohibiting Separate Orders for Allowances of Fees. An allowance of fees made on the determination of a matter shall be included in the judgment or order stating the determination.
Note: Source - R.R. 4:55-7(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f), 4:55-8, 4:98-4(c). Paragraphs (a) and (b) amended July 7, 1971 to be effective September 13, 1971; paragraph (a) amended November 27, 1974 to be effective April 1, 1975; paragraph (a) amended July 16, 1981 to be effective September 14, 1981; paragraph (a)(1) amended December 20, 1983 to be effective December 31, 1983; paragraphs (a)(1) and (b) amended November 1, 1985 to be effective January 2, 1986; paragraph (b) amended January 19, 1989 to be effective February 1, 1989; paragraph (a)(4) amended June 29, 1990 to be effective September 4, 1990; paragraph (a)(5) amended July 14, 1992 to be effective September 1, 1992; paragraphs (a)(1), (2) and (c) amended July 13, 1994 to be effective September 1, 1994; paragraph (a)(5) amended June 28, 1996 to be effective September 1, 1996; paragraph (a)(1) amended January 21, 1999 to be effective April 5, 1999; paragraph (a)(5) amended July 28, 2004 to be effective September 1, 2004; paragraph (a)(3) amended July 27, 2006 to be effective September 1, 2006; caption amended and subparagraphs (a)(5) and (a)(8) amended July 23, 2010 to be effective September 1, 2010.
4:42-10. Search Fees
 (a) Fees Allowable. In an action for the foreclosure of a mortgage or tax certificate or for partition and sale of realty, the court or the clerk may, as a matter of discretion, tax as part of the taxable costs all legal fees and reasonable charges necessarily paid or incurred in procuring searches relative to the title of the subject premises, provided that the minimum fee shall be $75 and the maximum fee shall be $500. If, however, 1% of the amount found due plaintiff is more than $75 and less than $500, such 1% shall be the maximum fee. In tax foreclosure actions brought to foreclose tax sale certificates on more than one parcel, the fees herein prescribed shall apply to each separate parcel, except, however, that in in rem tax foreclosure actions pursuant to R. 4:64-7, the fee shall be $75 for each separate parcel, and the maximum fee herein prescribed shall not apply. The court or the clerk may also authorize inclusion of all legal fees and charges necessarily incurred for searches required for unpaid taxes or municipal liens and for searches required to enable the officer making public sale to insert in the notices, advertisements and conditions of sale, a description of the estate or interest to be sold and the defects in title and liens or encumbrances thereon, as authorized by law.
 (b) Affidavit of Fees; Limitations. Fees for searches shall not be taxed, unless prior to the taxing thereof the plaintiff or plaintiff's attorney has filed an affidavit setting forth an itemized statement of the fees and charges for which taxation is asked, and including only such fees and charges as were actually and necessarily paid or incurred for the purpose of the action. Without court order no search fees shall be certified or taxed for searches respecting the state of the title or encumbrances thereon prior to the commencement of the co-tenancy in partition actions, or prior to the date of the mortgage in foreclosure actions. In tax foreclosures where the plaintiff is other than a municipality a notice similar to that required by R. 4:42-9(a)(5) shall be sent where search fees are to be applied for.
Note: Source-R.R. 4:55-9(a)(b). Paragraph (a) amended November 27, 1974 effective April 1, 1975; paragraph (a) amended July 24, 1978 to be effective September 11, 1978; paragraph (a) amended July 16, 1981 to be effective September 14, 1981; paragraph (a) amended July 15, 1982 to be effective September 13, 1982; paragraphs (a) and (b) amended July 13, 1994 to be effective September 1, 1994.
4:42-11. Interest; Rate on Judgments; in Tort Actions
 (a) Post Judgment Interest. Except as otherwise ordered by the court or provided by law, judgments, awards and orders for the payment of money, taxed costs and attorney's fees shall bear simple interest as follows:
• (i) For periods prior to January 2, 1986, the annual rate of return shall be as heretofore provided by this rule, namely, 6% for the period prior to April 1, 1975; 8% for the period between April 1, 1975 and September 13, 1981; and 12% for the period between September 14, 1981 and January 1, 1986.
• (ii) For judgments not exceeding the monetary limit of the Special Civil Part at the time of entry, regardless of the court in which the action was filed: commencing January 2, 1986 and for each calendar year thereafter, the annual rate of interest shall equal the average rate of return, to the nearest whole or one-half percent, for the corresponding preceding fiscal year terminating on June 30, of the State of New Jersey Cash Management Fund (State accounts) as reported by the Division of Investment in the Department of the Treasury.
• (iii) For judgments exceeding the monetary limit of the Special Civil Part at the time of entry: in the manner provided for in subparagraph (a)(ii) of this Rule until September 1, 1996; thereafter, at the rate provided in subparagraph (a)(ii) plus 2% per annum.
Post-judgment interest may be included in the calculation of an attorney's contingency fee.
 (b) Tort Actions. Except where provided by statute with respect to a public entity or employee, and except as otherwise provided by law, the court shall, in tort actions, including products liability actions, include in the judgment simple interest, calculated as hereafter provided, from the date of the institution of the action or from a date 6 months after the date the cause of action arises, whichever is later, provided that in exceptional cases the court may suspend the running of such prejudgment interest. Prejudgment interest shall not, however, be allowed on any recovery for future economic losses. Prejudgment interest shall be calculated in the same amount and manner provided for by paragraph (a) of this rule except that for all periods prior to January 1, 1988 interest shall be calculated at 12% per annum. The contingent fee of an attorney shall not be computed on the interest so included in the judgment.
Note: Adopted December 21, 1971 to be effective January 31, 1972. Paragraph (b) amended June 29, 1973 to be effective September 10, 1973; paragraphs (a) and (b) amended November 27, 1974 to be effective April 1, 1975; paragraphs (a) and (b) amended July 29, 1977 to be effective September 6, 1977; paragraphs (a) and (b) amended July 16, 1981 to be effective September 14, 1981; paragraph (a) amended July 15, 1982 to be effective September 13, 1982; paragraph (a) amended July 26, 1984 to be effective September 10, 1984; paragraph (a) amended November 1, 1985 to be effective January 2, 1986; paragraph (b) amended November 2, 1987 to be effective January 1, 1988; paragraph (a)(ii) amended and paragraph (a)(iii) added June 28, 1996 to be effective September 1, 1996; paragraph (b) amended April 28, 2003 to be effective July 1, 2003; paragraph (a) amended July 23, 2010 to be effective September 1, 2010.
RULE 4:43. Default
4:43-1. Entry of Default
If a party against whom a judgment for affirmative relief is sought has failed to plead or otherwise defend as provided by these rules or court order, or if the answer has been stricken with prejudice, the clerk shall enter a default on the docket as to such party. Except where the default is entered on special order of the court, the moving party shall make a formal written request of the clerk for the entry of the default, supported by the attorney's affidavit. The affidavit shall recite the service of the process and copy of complaint on the defendant or defendants (if more than one, naming them), the date of service as appears from the return of the process, and that the time within which the defendant or defendants may answer or otherwise move as to the complaint, counterclaim, cross-claim, or third-party complaint has expired and has not been extended. The request and affidavit for entry of default shall be filed together within 6 months of the actual default, and the default shall not be entered thereafter except on notice of motion filed and served in accordance with R. 1:6 on the party in default. If defendant was originally served with process either personally or by certified or ordinary mail, the attorney obtaining the entry of the default shall send a copy thereof to the defaulting defendant by ordinary mail addressed to the same address at which defendant was served with process.
Note: Source-R.R. 4:56-1(a) (b) (c) (d); amended July 13, 1994 to be effective September 1, 1994; amended June 28, 1996 to be effective September 1, 1996; amended July 12, 2002 to be effective September 3, 2002.
4:43-2. Final Judgment by Default
After a default has been entered in accordance with R. 4:43-1, except as otherwise provided by R. 4:64 (foreclosures), but not simultaneously therewith, a final judgment may be entered in the action as follows:
 (a) By the Clerk. If the plaintiff's claim against a defendant is for a sum certain or for a sum which can by computation be made certain, the clerk upon request of the plaintiff and upon affidavit setting forth a particular statement of the items of the claim, their amounts and dates, a calculation in figures of the amount of interest, the payments or credits, if any, and the net amount due, shall sign and enter judgment for the net amount and costs against such defendant, if not a minor or mentally incapacitated person. If prejudgment interest is demanded in the complaint the clerk shall add that interest to the amount due provided the affidavit of proof states the date of defendant's breach. If the judgment is based on a document of obligation that provides a rate of interest, prejudgment interest shall be calculated in accordance therewith; otherwise it shall be calculated in accordance with Rule 4:42-11(a). If the claim is founded upon a note, check or bill of exchange or is evidenced by entries in the plaintiff's book of account, or other records, a copy thereof shall be attached to the affidavit. If the application for entry of default judgment is made after the expiration of six months following the entry of default, notice thereof shall be given to the defendant by ordinary mail, and proof of service thereof shall accompany the application.
 (b) By the Court. By the Court. In all other cases, except Family Part matters recognized by Part V of these Rules, the party entitled to a judgment by default shall apply to the court therefor by notice of motion pursuant to R. 1:6, served on all parties to the action, including the defaulting defendant or the representative who appeared for the defaulting defendant. No judgment by default shall be entered against a minor or mentally incapacitated person unless that person is represented in the action by a guardian or guardian ad litem who has appeared therein. If, to enable the court to enter judgment or to carry it into effect, it is necessary to take an account or to determine the amount of damages or to establish the truth of any allegation by evidence or to make an investigation of any other matter, the court, on its own motion or at the request of a party on notice to the defaulting defendant or defendant's representative, may conduct such proof hearings with or without a jury or take such proceedings as it deems appropriate. The notice of proof hearing shall be by ordinary mail addressed to the same address at which process was served unless the party entitled to judgment has actual knowledge of a different current address for the defaulting defendant. Proof of service of the notice of motion and notice of any proof hearing shall certify that the plaintiff has no actual knowledge that the defaulting defendant's address has changed after service of original process or, if the plaintiff has such knowledge, the proof shall certify the underlying facts. In tort actions involving multiple defendants whose percentage of liability is subject to comparison and actions in which fewer than all defendants have defaulted, default judgment of liability may be entered against the defaulting defendants but such questions as defendants' respective percentages of liability and total damages due plaintiff shall be reserved for trial or other final disposition of the action. If application is made for the entry of judgment by default in deficiency suits or claims based directly or indirectly upon the sale of a chattel which has been repossessed, the plaintiff shall prove before the court the description of the property, the amount realized at the sale or credited to the defendant and the costs of the sale. In actions for possession of land, however, the court need not require proof of title by the plaintiff. If application is made for the entry of judgment by default in negligence actions involving property damage only, proof shall be made as provided by R. 6:6-3(c).
 (c) Conformance of Judgment With Pleading; Service of Judgment. Whether entered by the clerk or the court, the final judgment shall not be different in kind nor exceed the amount demanded in the pleading, except that in continuing causes, installments coming due after the filing of the pleading but before entry of judgment may be added to the amount of the demand stated in the pleading. Within seven days after receipt of the executed judgment from the court, the proponent of the judgment shall serve a copy thereof on the defaulting defendant as required by R. 1:5-2 except that service may be made by ordinary mail alone.
 (d) Failure to Apply for Judgment Within Four Months. If a party entitled to a judgment by default fails to apply therefor within four months after the entry of the default, the court shall issue a written notice in accordance with R. 1:13-7(a).
Note: Source - R.R. 4:55-4 (first sentence), 4:56-2(a) (b) (first three sentences) (c), 4:79-4. Paragraph (b) amended July 7, 1971 to be effective September 13, 1971; paragraph (b) amended July 15, 1982 to be effective September 13, 1982; text and paragraph (a) amended January 19, 1989 to be effective February 1, 1989; paragraph (b) amended July 14, 1992 to be effective September 1, 1992; paragraphs (a), (b) and (d) amended July 13, 1994 to be effective September 1, 1994; paragraphs (b) and (c) amended June 28, 1996 to be effective September 1, 1996; paragraph (d) amended July 5, 2000 to be effective September 5, 2000; paragraphs (a) and (b) amended July 12, 2002 to be effective September 3, 2002; introductory text and paragraph (d) amended July 28, 2004 to be effective September 1, 2004; paragraph (b) amended and paragraph (d) caption and text amended July 27, 2006 to be effective September 1, 2006; paragraph (a) amended September 11, 2006 to be effective immediately; paragraph (b) amended June 15, 2007 to be effective September 1, 2007; paragraph (b) amended July 9, 2008 to be effective September 1, 2008.
4:43-3. Setting Aside Default
A party's motion for the vacation of an entry of default shall be accompanied by (1) either an answer to the complaint and Case Information Statement or a dispositive motion pursuant to Rule 4:6-2, and (2) the filing fee for an answer or dispositive motion, which shall be returned if the motion to vacate the entry of default is denied. For good cause shown, the court may set aside an entry of default and, if a judgment by default has been entered, may likewise set it aside in accordance with Rule 4:50.
Note: Source-R.R. 4:56-3; amended July 9, 2008 to be effective September 1, 2008.
4:43-4. Plaintiffs, Counterclaimants, Cross-Claimants
The provisions of R. 4:43 apply whether the party entitled to the judgment by default is a plaintiff, a third-party plaintiff, or a party who has pleaded a cross-claim or counterclaim.
Note: Source-R.R. 4:56-4 (first sentence).
RULE 4:45. Judgment By Confession
4:45-1. Warrant of Attorney
A judgment by confession shall not be entered upon a warrant of attorney which is included in the body of a bond or other instrument for the payment of money.
Note: Source-R.R. 4:57-1.
4:45-2. Procedure to Confess Judgment
No judgment shall be entered on warrant of attorney in any action on a bond or other instrument for the payment of money, except on motion after notice to the defendant served in lieu of summons in accordance with R. 4:4-4 or by registered or certified mail. On the return day of the motion, the attorney at law, confessing judgment pursuant to the warrant, shall produce to the court the warrant therefor, the bond or instrument, and the affidavit of the plaintiff or plaintiff's attorney or agent, to which is attached a copy of the warrant and instrument, stating the true consideration for the liability stated in the instrument, the amount then justly due the plaintiff, and that the judgment is not confessed with a fraudulent intent or to protect the property of the defendant from creditors. The court may require additional proof in such form as it directs that the warrant was duly executed, the person liable is living and was notified of the application, and the debt or a part thereof is unsatisfied. The court shall then, if satisfied with the proofs, order entry of a judgment for such amount as it finds to be due.
Note: Source-R.R. 4:57-2, 4:57-3; amended July 13, 1994 to be effective September 1, 1994.
RULE 4:48. Satisfaction Or Cancellation Of Judgment
4:48-1. Execution and Delivery of Warrant of Satisfaction
Upon satisfaction of a judgment duly entered and docketed, a warrant shall be executed and delivered to the party making satisfaction or to the party's representative, guardian or attorney, or to the clerk of the court, stating the judgment docket number or book and page where it is recorded and directing the clerk to satisfy the same of record. The warrant shall be executed by anyone entitled to receive satisfaction or by the attorney of record in the action. If executed by anyone other than the attorney of record the warrant shall be duly acknowledged. If executed by the attorney of record the attorney's certification shall suffice.
Note: Source-R.R. 4:60-1. Amended July 14, 1972 to be effective September 5, 1972; amended July 13, 1994 to be effective September 1, 1994.
4:48-2. Entry of Satisfaction
 (a) By Clerk. On the filing of a warrant, or the return, fully paid or satisfied, by the sheriff or other officer of any execution issued on any judgment, the clerk shall forthwith enter satisfaction on the record, provided, however, that satisfaction of a judgment in favor of a minor for more than $5000 shall not be entered except on court order, unless a guardian has been appointed for the minor's property or the minor has come of age. The clerk may enter satisfaction on the record as to any co-defendant filing a warrant stating that the party has paid the full share of the judgment even though a portion of the total judgment remains unsatisfied.
 (b) By Order of Court. If a party receiving full satisfaction of a judgment fails to enter satisfaction on the record or deliver a warrant to satisfy, the court may on motion by the party making satisfaction, order satisfaction of the judgment to be entered of record.
Note: Source-R.R. 4:60-3. Paragraph (a) amended by order of September 5, 1969 to be effective September 8, 1969; paragraph (a) amended July 22, 1983 to be effective September 12, 1983; paragraph (a) amended July 13, 1994 to be effective September 1, 1994.
4:48-3. Entry of Satisfaction on Payment of Moneys Into Court
 (a) Motion for Payment. If a judgment or order for the payment of money is rendered or docketed, or the records thereof are in the custody of the court, the court shall on motion order the clerk of the court to accept payment of the amount thereof, with interest and costs, and, upon receiving payment, to enter satisfaction thereof on the record, if it shall appear upon the motion that:
• (1) A tender of the amount due thereon, with interest and costs, has been made to the holder thereof, who refuses to accept the tender or to execute a satisfaction or warrant in satisfaction therefor; or
• (2) The whereabouts of the holder thereof is unknown and an investigation, the results of which shall be set forth by affidavits on the motion, has been made to discover the holder's whereabouts; or
• (3) An appeal is pending or the time limited for taking an appeal has not expired and the moving party intends to appeal; or
• (4) A motion for relief from the judgment or order or for a new trial is pending, or the time limited for making such motion has not expired and the moving party intends to so move, but in that event the moving party shall, with the payment to the clerk, deliver a bond to the clerk in such amount and form and with such sureties as the court approves, as security for the payment of the costs on such motion.
 (b) Terms of Motion; Effective Payment. A motion under R. 4:48-3(a) shall state the court in which the judgment or order was recovered or docketed, the parties thereto, the date and amount thereof, and the book and page of record and of the docketing. Payment to the clerk of the amount due upon judgment or order shall not be deemed to affect the right of any party to the action to appeal or to move for relief or for a new trial. The clerk shall hold moneys so paid into court subject to the further order of the court.
Note: Source-R.R. 4:60-4, 4:60-5; paragraphs (a)(1), (2), and (4) amended July 13, 1994 to be effective September 1, 1994.
4:48-4. Recourse by Some Judgment Debtors Against Other Judgment Debtors
If a judgment is recovered against 2 or more persons, one of whom, liable thereon secondarily or equally with any other, satisfies the judgment, or when bail in a civil action is compelled to pay a judgment against a defendant, the person paying the judgment may on motion and notice to the other persons in interest, excluding the judgment creditor, apply to the court for an order allowing the paying party the full benefit and control of the judgment and any outstanding execution. The court may make such order, on terms, and may direct that new execution issue for the purpose of compelling payment or contribution by any party liable in the amount fixed by the court. If the motion is granted the judgment shall be revived to the extent only of a judgment effective as of the date of such revival in favor of the person or persons applying as against the co-defendant or co-defendants or the person for whom bail was given. The clerk of the court in which the judgment is entered shall enter upon the margin of the record of the judgment the notation of revival of the judgment to the extent aforesaid and the date and docket number of the order of revival so entered; or, if the said judgment is docketed, the transcript shall include said notation, and the clerk of the court in which the same is docketed shall make like marginal entry. The order of revival shall be indexed by the clerk as a revived judgment.
Note: Source-R.R. 4:60-6; amended July 13, 1994 to be effective September 1, 1994.
RULE 4:48A. Judgments For Minors And Mentally Incapacitated Persons
 (a) Minor. In the event of a judgment for a minor after trial or settlement, the court shall dispense with the giving of a bond and, except as otherwise ordered by the court, shall direct the proceeds of the judgment, if it does not exceed $5,000 to be disposed of pursuant to N.J.S.A. 3B:12-6, and if it exceeds the same, then to be deposited in court pursuant to N.J.S.A. 3B:15-16 and 17. A copy of the order directing deposit of the proceeds shall be furnished by the court to the surrogate on its entry.
 (b) Mentally Incapacitated Persons. If a judgment is in favor of a mentally incapacitated person, the court shall by order either dispense with the giving of a bond by the guardian and direct that the proceeds of the judgment be deposited in court to be handled in the same manner as in the case of a minor, or make such other provision for the disposition of the proceeds of the judgment as may be in the best interest of the mentally incapacitated person.
 (c) Withdrawals. Withdrawal of funds deposited pursuant to this rule shall be sought by notice of motion supported by an affidavit explaining the necessity for the requested withdrawal of funds and filed in the Superior Court, Chancery Division, Probate Part. The proceeding shall be ex parte unless there are adverse interests or unless the court otherwise orders.
Note: Adopted July 7, 1971 to be effective September 13, 1971; paragraph (a) amended July 22, 1983 to be effective September 12, 1983; paragraphs (a) and (b) amended and paragraph (c) adopted June 29, 1990 to be effective September 4, 1990; caption amended, and paragraph (b) caption and text amended July 12, 2002 to be effective September 3, 2002; paragraphs (a) and (c) amended July 9, 2008 to be effective September 1, 2008.
RULE 4:49. New Trials; Amendment Of Judgments
4:49-1. Motion for New Trial
 (a) Grounds of Motion. A new trial may be granted to all or any of the parties and as to all or part of the issues on motion made to the trial judge. On a motion for a new trial in an action tried without a jury, the trial judge may open the judgment if one has been entered, take additional testimony, amend findings of fact and conclusions of law or make new findings and conclusions, and direct the entry of a new judgment. The trial judge shall grant the motion if, having given due regard to the opportunity of the jury to pass upon the credibility of the witnesses, it clearly and convincingly appears that there was a miscarriage of justice under the law.
 (b) Time for Motion, Cross-Motion; Affidavits. A motion for a new trial shall be served not later than 20 days after the court's conclusions are announced in nonjury actions or after the return of the verdict of the jury. The motion shall be noticed for hearing and argued no later than the second regular motion day following the service thereof, unless the court for good cause shown orders the hearing fixed for either an earlier or a later date. The opposing party may, within 10 days after service of the motion, serve a cross-motion for a new trial returnable at the same time and place as the motion. If a motion for a new trial is based upon affidavits they shall be served with the motion; opposing affidavits shall be served within 10 days thereafter which period may be extended for an additional period not exceeding 20 days either by written stipulation of the parties or court order. The court may permit reply affidavits. Except in special circumstances the motion shall be decided by the judge on trial notes without awaiting a transcript of the testimony.
 (c) On Initiative of Court. Not later than 20 days after entry of judgment the court on its own motion may order a new trial for any reason for which it might have granted a new trial on motion of a party. After giving the parties notice and an opportunity to be heard on the matter the court may grant a motion for a new trial timely served, for a reason not stated in the motion. In either case, the court shall specify in the order the grounds therefor.
 (d) Motion for New Trial as Not Barring Appeal. A motion for a new trial or any action or adverse determination on the motion shall not bar an appeal or the review of any matter on appeal.
Note: Source-R.R. 4:61-1(a), 4:61-2, 4:61-3, 4:61-4, 4:61-5. Paragraph (a) amended July 7, 1971 to be effective September 13, 1971; paragraph (b) amended July 13, 1994 to be effective September 1, 1994; paragraphs (b) and (c) amended July 10, 1998 to be effective September 1, 1998.
4:49-2. Motion to Alter or Amend a Judgment or Order
Except as otherwise provided by R. 1:13-1 (clerical errors) a motion for rehearing or reconsideration seeking to alter or amend a judgment or order shall be served not later than 20 days after service of the judgment or order upon all parties by the party obtaining it. The motion shall state with specificity the basis on which it is made, including a statement of the matters or controlling decisions which counsel believes the court has overlooked or as to which it has erred, and shall have annexed thereto a copy of the judgment or order sought to be reconsidered and a copy of the court's corresponding written opinion, if any.
Note: Source — R.R. 4:61-6. Amended November 5, 1986 to be effective January 1, 1987; amended July 14, 1992 to be effective September 1, 1992; amended July 10, 1998 to be effective September 1, 1998; amended July 19, 2012 to be effective September 4, 2012.
RULE 4:50. Relief From Judgment Or Order
4:50-1. Grounds of Motion
On motion, with briefs, and upon such terms as are just, the court may relieve a party or the party's legal representative from a final judgment or order for the following reasons: (a) mistake, inadvertence, surprise, or excusable neglect; (b) newly discovered evidence which would probably alter the judgment or order and which by due diligence could not have been discovered in time to move for a new trial under R. 4:49; (c) fraud (whether heretofore denominated intrinsic or extrinsic), misrepresentation, or other misconduct of an adverse party; (d) the judgment or order is void; (e) the judgment or order has been satisfied, released or discharged, or a prior judgment or order upon which it is based has been reversed or otherwise vacated, or it is no longer equitable that the judgment or order should have prospective application; or (f) any other reason justifying relief from the operation of the judgment or order.
Note: Source-R.R. 4:62-2 (first sentence); amended July 15, 1982 to be effective September 13, 1982; amended July 13, 1994 to be effective September 1, 1994.
4:50-2. Time of Motion
The motion shall be made within a reasonable time, and for reasons (a), (b) and (c) of R. 4:50-1 not more than one year after the judgment, order or proceeding was entered or taken.
Note: Source-R.R. 4:62-2 (second sentence).
4:50-3. Effect of Motion
A motion under R. 4:50 does not suspend the operation of any judgment, order or proceeding or affect the finality of a final judgment, nor does this rule limit the power of a court to set aside a judgment, order or proceeding for fraud upon the court or to entertain an independent action to relieve a party from a judgment, order or proceeding.
Note: Source-R.R. 4:62-2 (third and fourth sentences).

NEED HELP WITH YOUR NEW JERSEY CASE?
Handling your New Jersey case wrong from the beginning may only cost you more money and time in the end!! Do it right the first time by seeking legal advice from a competent New Jersey lawyer!
Let the Law Office of Paul DePetris help you with your New Jersey case. Not all New Jersey cases require you to pay expensive legal fees to get legal help.

WHY SHOULD NEW JERSEY PRO SE PLAINTIFFS AND NEW JERSEY PRO SE DEFENDANTS SEEK HELP FROM A NEW JERSEY LAWYER?
Handling your New Jersey case wrong from the beginning may only cost you more money and time in the end!! Do it right the first time by seeking legal advice from a competent New Jersey lawyer!
Many New Jersey pro se plaintiffs and New Jersey pro se defendants make the mistake of not consulting a New Jersey lawyer before filing New Jersey Court papers only to later learn that the New Jersey pro se plaintiffs and New Jersey pro se defendants made serious mistakes that could cause them to lose their New Jersey case. Let the Law Office of Paul DePetris help you with your New Jersey case.

CAN I RELY ON NEW JERSEY COURT PERSONNEL FOR LEGAL ADVICE?
New Jersey Court employees cannot give you “free” legal advice and a New Jersey Court judge may refuse to let you claim that you were right in taking an action (or in deciding not to take action) because you relied on advice from such employees. Most New Jersey Court employees are not trained New Jersey attorneys and therefore, they may not know what advice to give you. Working at the New Jersey Court as a non-judge is not the same as practicing law.

CAN I RELY ON NEW JERSEY COURT FORMS PROVIDED BY THE NEW JERSEY COURT?
The New Jersey Court usually provides certain types of New Jersey Court legal forms to the public and those forms are often very helpful. However, beware relying on New Jersey Court forms provided by the New Jersey Court – the New Jersey Court forms are often deceptively simple, while New Jersey cases often are much more complex than they first appear to be. There is simply no substitute for a competent New Jersey attorney licensed to practice law in New Jersey who has experience handling New Jersey cases. New Jersey Court forms don’t talk and New Jersey Court forms and their directions rarely, if ever, cover every possible situation, set of facts or legal issue that may arise in a New Jersey case. Each New Jersey case has its own particular legal issues and therefore, its own challenges. If you can afford a competent New Jersey attorney, it is best to have the New Jersey attorney prepare your New Jersey Court paperwork for you.

CAN I HANDLE A NEW JERSEY CASE MYSELF?
Many New Jersey pro se plaintiffs and New Jersey pro se defendants can and do successfully handle New Jersey cases, from filing the first paperwork to the collection of a New Jersey Court judgment. However, many other New Jersey pro se plaintiffs and New Jersey pro se defendants also make mistakes that lead to the dismissal of their New Jersey cases or that result in the entry of a New Jersey Court money judgment against them. The greater the money at stake, the greater the reason to consider using the services of a competent attorney licensed to practice law in New Jersey to handle part or all of the New Jersey case. The following are reasons to use an attorney to handle part or all of your New Jersey case:
• New Jersey Court fees often change
• New Jersey Court rules often change
• New Jersey Court employees cannot give you “free” legal advice and a New Jersey Court judge may refuse to let you claim that you were right in taking an action (or in deciding not to take action) because you relied on advice from such employees
• New Jersey Court forms available on websites may not cover every situation you may face in Court
• each New Jersey case has its own particular legal issues and therefore, its own challenges
• it is very common for New Jersey pro se plaintiffs and New Jersey pro se defendants to file inadequate or incorrect New Jersey Court complaints that result in the New Jersey Court complaints or answers to New Jersey Court complaints being rejected by the New Jersey Court or being dismissed by the New Jersey Court after filing and before or after trial because of procedural deficiencies.
• it is not uncommon for judges to get very frustrated by an unrepresented party’s lack of preparation or ignorance of the facts or law of the New Jersey case.
• a Court has the power to punish unprepared New Jersey plaintiffs and New Jersey defendants, such as by throwing their New Jersey case out of Court or limiting what they can present at the New Jersey Court trial.
• New Jersey has many published cases, laws, regulations, Court rules and rules of evidence that can be very tricky to understand and that can be used to prevent you from doing much of what you want to do at the New Jersey Court trial.
• it is very common for Courts to refuse to allow a party to use or refer to documents or items at the New Jersey Court trial that the person themselves never prepared. Often New Jersey plaintiffs and New Jersey defendants stumble into New Jersey Court with a video, photograph, bill or affidavit or other form of written statement, thinking they are going to use it as proof that they lost money or that they are not responsible for someone else’s damages, only to have a New Jersey Court judge tell the New Jersey plaintiffs and New Jersey defendants that it is not going to even consider such items or documents.
• without the proper preparation, items and documents may never be considered by the New Jersey Court. Also, if there are any legal issues to be dealt with at the New Jersey Court trial, you must be prepared to argue them, which may require you to refer to Court rules, evidence rules, laws, regulations or published cases.
• you cannot show up at the New Jersey Court expecting the judge hearing your New Jersey case to explain Court rules, evidence rules, Court procedure or the details of the law that applies to your New Jersey case. The judge hearing your New Jersey case is not permitted to give you legal advice.

It is important to remember that even if you have an attorney, you could lose your New Jersey case. Hiring an attorney to handle part or all of your New Jersey case does not guarantee your success. However, it may provide what is needed to win your New Jersey case or to avoid certain mistakes.

DOES THE LAW OFFICE OF PAUL DEPETRIS HAVE EXPERIENCE HANDLING NEW JERSEY CASES?
Yes. Paul DePetris has performed the following tasks:
• handled New Jersey cases for plaintiffs and defendants across New Jersey, from Bergen County New Jersey to Cumberland County New Jersey, including representations of individuals, small businesses and large corporations.
• settled New Jersey cases for plaintiffs and defendants across New Jersey.
• reviewed many New Jersey Court settlement agreements.
• enforced many New Jersey Court settlement agreements.
• provided New Jersey pro se plaintiffs and New Jersey pro se defendants with New Jersey Court legal advice and prepared New Jersey Court legal forms
• prepared and filed many New Jersey Court complaints
• tried New Jersey Court jury trials
• mediated many New Jersey cases
• argued New Jersey Court motions
• handled New Jersey Court proof hearings
• handled New Jersey Court post judgment collection proceedings

Mr. DePetris has appeared before the Superior Court of New Jersey in the following counties:
• Atlantic County New Jersey Court
• Bergen County New Jersey Court
• Burlington County New Jersey Court
• Camden County New Jersey Court
• Cape May County New Jersey Court
• Cumberland County New Jersey Court
• Essex County New Jersey Court
• Gloucester County New Jersey Court
• Hudson County New Jersey Court
• Mercer County New Jersey Court
• Middlesex County New Jersey Court
• Monmouth County New Jersey Court
• Morris County New Jersey Court
• Ocean County New Jersey Court
• Passaic County New Jersey Court
• Salem County New Jersey Court
• Somerset County New Jersey Court
• Sussex County New Jersey Court
• Union County New Jersey Court
• Warren County New Jersey Court

IN WHAT NEW JERSEY COUNTIES WILL THE LAW OFFICE OF PAUL DEPETRIS HANDLE NEW JERSEY CASES?
The Law Office of Paul DePetris offers to handle and help individuals and businesses with New Jersey Court Claims cases in North, Central and Southern New Jersey, including cases in the following New Jersey counties:
• Atlantic County New Jersey Court
• Bergen County New Jersey Court
• Burlington County New Jersey Court
• Camden County New Jersey Court
• Cape May County New Jersey Court
• Cumberland County New Jersey Court
• Essex County New Jersey Court
• Gloucester County New Jersey Court
• Hudson County New Jersey Court
• Mercer County New Jersey Court
• Middlesex County New Jersey Court
• Monmouth County New Jersey Court
• Morris County New Jersey Court
• Ocean County New Jersey Court
• Passaic County New Jersey Court
• Salem County New Jersey Court
• Somerset County New Jersey Court
• Sussex County New Jersey Court
• Union County New Jersey Court
• Warren County New Jersey Court

WHAT IF I DON’T HAVE ENOUGH MONEY TO HIRE AN ATTORNEY TO HANDLE MY NEW JERSEY CASE FROM BEGINNING TO END?
In many situations, the Law Office of Paul DePetris offers alternatives to handling New Jersey cases for an hourly fee, such as by offering to handle your New Jersey case up to trial for a fixed fee or to help you handle your New Jersey case by yourself. Such flexible methods may allow you to keep the amount legal fees you spend on your New Jersey case to a fixed sum, while providing you the help you need to handle your New Jersey case. For a no obligation phone consultation about what the Firm might be able to do for you, call Mr. DePetris at 609-714-2020 or send an email to Mr. DePetris.
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