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New Jersey Summary Judgment Rules

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2013 NEW JERSEY SUMMARY JUDGMENT RULES

RULE 4:46. Summary Judgment
4:46-1. Time for Making, Filing, and Serving Motion
A party seeking any affirmative relief may, at any time after the expiration of 35 days from the service of the pleading claiming such relief, move for a summary judgment or order on all or any part thereof or as to any defense. A party against whom a claim for such affirmative relief is asserted may move at any time for a summary judgment or order as to all or any part thereof. All motions for summary judgment shall be returnable no later than 30 days before the scheduled trial date, unless the court otherwise orders for good cause shown, and if the decision is not communicated to the parties at least 10 days prior to the scheduled trial date, an application for adjournment shall be liberally granted. Except as otherwise provided by R. 6:3-3 (motion practice in Special Civil Part) or unless the court otherwise orders, a motion for summary judgment shall be served and filed not later than 28 days before the time specified for the return date; opposing affidavits, certifications, briefs, and cross-motions for summary judgment, if any, shall be served and filed not later than 10 days before the return date; and answers or responses to such opposing papers or to cross-motions shall be served and filed not later than four days before the return date. No other papers may be filed without leave of court.
Note: Source – R.R. 4:58-1, 4:58-2. Caption and text amended November 1, 1985 to be effective January 2, 1986; amended November 5, 1986 to be effective January 1, 1987; amended November 7, 1988 to be effective January 2, 1989; amended July 13, 1994 to be effective September 1, 1994; amended June 28, 1996 to be effective September 1, 1996; amended July 10, 1998 to be effective September 1, 1998; amended July 27, 2006 to be effective September 1, 2006; amended July 9, 2008 to be effective September 1, 2008; amended July 19, 2012 to be effective September 4, 2012.
4:46-2. Motion and Proceedings Thereon
 (a) Requirements in Support of Motion. The motion for summary judgment shall be served with briefs, a statement of material facts and with or without supporting affidavits. The statement of material facts shall set forth in separately numbered paragraphs a concise statement of each material fact as to which the movant contends there is no genuine issue together with a citation to the portion of the motion record establishing the fact or demonstrating that it is uncontroverted. The citation shall identify the document and shall specify the pages and paragraphs or lines thereof or the specific portions of exhibits relied on. A motion for summary judgment may be denied without prejudice for failure to file the required statement of material facts.
 (b) Requirements in Opposition to Motion. A party opposing the motion shall file a responding statement either admitting or disputing each of the facts in the movant's statement. Subject to R. 4:46-5(a), all material facts in the movant's statement which are sufficiently supported will be deemed admitted for purposes of the motion only, unless specifically disputed by citation conforming to the requirements of paragraph (a) demonstrating the existence of a genuine issue as to the fact. An opposing party may also include in the responding statement additional facts that the party contends are material and as to which there exists a genuine issue. Each such fact shall be stated in separately numbered paragraphs together with citations to the motion record.
 (c) Proceedings and Standards on Motions. The judgment or order sought shall be rendered forthwith if the pleadings, depositions, answers to interrogatories and admissions on file, together with the affidavits, if any, show that there is no genuine issue as to any material fact challenged and that the moving party is entitled to a judgment or order as a matter of law. An issue of fact is genuine only if, considering the burden of persuasion at trial, the evidence submitted by the parties on the motion, together with all legitimate inferences therefrom favoring the non-moving party, would require submission of the issue to the trier of fact. The court shall find the facts and state its conclusions in accordance with R. 1:7-4. A summary judgment or order, interlocutory in character, may be rendered on any issue in the action (including the issue of liability) although there is a genuine factual dispute as to any other issue (including any issue as to the amount of damages). Subject to the provisions of R. 4:42-2 (judgment upon multiple claims), a summary judgment final in character may be rendered in respect of any portion of the damages claimed.
Note: Source-R.R. 4:58-3. Amended July 14, 1972 to be effective September 5, 1972; amended June 29, 1973 to be effective September 10, 1973; amended and subparagraphs designated June 28, 1996 to be effective September 1, 1996; paragraph (b) amended July 10, 1998 to be effective September 1, 1998.
4:46-3. Case Not Adjudicated on Motion
 (a) Order Limiting Factual Controversy. If on motion under this rule judgment is not rendered upon the whole action or for all the relief asked and a trial is necessary, the court at the hearing of the motion, by examining the pleadings and the evidence before it and by interrogating counsel, shall, if practicable, ascertain what material facts, including facts as to the amount of damages, exist without substantial controversy and shall thereupon make an order specifying those facts and directing such further proceedings in the action as are appropriate. Upon trial of the action the facts so specified shall be deemed established.
 (b) Order for Trial. If after the inquiry prescribed by paragraph (a) of this rule it appears to the court at the hearing of the motion that the case may be fully or partially adjudicated upon limited testimony, with or without specific further discovery, the court shall, if practicable, enter an order fixing a date certain for the trial of specifically identified disputed factual issues and, if appropriate, fixing the subject, mode, and time for completion of discovery.
Note: Source-R.R. 4:58-4. Former rule redesignated as paragraph (a), paragraph (b) adopted July 26, 1984 to be effective September 10, 1984.
4:46-4. Leave to Proceed Upon Terms
Leave to proceed may be given unconditionally, or upon such terms as to giving security, or time or mode of trial, or otherwise, as is deemed just.
Note: Source-R.R. 4:58-5.
4:46-5. Affidavits
 (a) Specific Facts Required of Adverse Party Unless Affidavits Are Unavailable. When a motion for summary judgment is made and supported as provided in this rule, an adverse party may not rest upon the mere allegations or denials of the pleading, but must respond by affidavits meeting the requirements of R. 1:6-6 or as otherwise provided in this rule and by R. 4:46-2(b), setting forth specific facts showing that there is a genuine issue for trial. If the adverse party does not so respond, summary judgment, if appropriate, shall be entered unless it appears from the affidavits submitted, for reasons therein stated, that the party was unable to present by affidavit facts essential to justify opposition, in which case the court may deny the motion, may order a continuance to permit additional affidavits to be obtained, depositions to be taken or discovery to be had, or may make such other order as may be appropriate.
 (b) Affidavits Made in Bad Faith. If the court is satisfied, at any time, that any of the affidavits submitted pursuant to this rule are presented in bad faith or solely for the purpose of delay, the court shall forthwith order the party employing them to pay to the other party the amount of the reasonable expenses resulting from the filing of the affidavits, including reasonable attorney's fees, and any offending party or attorney may be adjudged guilty of contempt.
Note: Source-R.R. 4:58-7, 4:58-8(a)(b). Paragraph (a) caption and text amended June 29, 1973 to be effective September 10, 1973; paragraphs (a) and (b) amended July 13, 1994 to be effective September 1, 1994; paragraph (a) amended June 28, 1996 to be effective September 1, 1996.
4:46-6. Attorneys Fees
In an action tried to conclusion in which the prevailing party had made a pretrial motion for summary judgment or partial summary judgment that was denied, the court may, on motion, award counsel fees to the prevailing party if it finds that the denial of the motion was based on a factual contention raised in bad faith by the party opposing the motion with knowledge that it was a palpable sham or predicated on facts known or which should have been known to be false. The motion shall be made to the trial court and shall be decided on the basis of the record made in the summary judgment motion and the trial of the cause. The award of counsel fees shall be limited to those legal services rendered on the motion for summary judgment and for such subsequent services as were compelled by its denial.
Note: Adopted July 22, 1983 to be effective September 12, 1983; amended July 13, 1994 to be effective September 1, 1994.
RULE 1:5. Service And Filing Of Papers
1:5-1. Service: When Required
 (a) Civil Actions. In all civil actions, unless otherwise provided by rule or court order, orders, judgments, pleadings subsequent to the original complaint, written motions (not made ex parte), briefs, appendices, petitions and other papers except a judgment signed by the clerk shall be served upon all attorneys of record in the action and upon parties appearing pro se; but no service need be made on parties who have failed to appear except that pleadings asserting new or additional claims for relief against such parties in default shall be served upon them in the manner provided for service of original process. The party obtaining an order or judgment shall serve it as herein prescribed within 7 days after the date it was signed unless the court otherwise orders therein.
 (b) Criminal Actions. In criminal actions, unless otherwise provided by rule or court order, written motions (not made ex parte), briefs, appendices, petitions, memoranda and other papers shall be served upon all attorneys of record in the action, upon parties appearing pro se and upon such other agencies of government as may be affected by the relief sought.
Note: Source-R.R. 3:11-4(a), 4:5-1. Paragraph (a) amended July 16, 1979 to be effective September 10, 1979; paragraph (b) amended July 13, 1994 to be effective September 1, 1994.
1:5-2. Manner of Service
Service upon an attorney of papers referred to in R. 1:5-1 shall be made by mailing a copy to the attorney at his or her office by ordinary mail, by handing it to the attorney, or by leaving it at the office with a person in the attorney's employ, or, if the office is closed or the attorney has no office, in the same manner as service is made upon a party. Service upon a party of such papers shall be made as provided in R. 4:4-4 or by registered or certified mail, return receipt requested, and simultaneously by ordinary mail to the party's last known address. If no address is known, despite diligent effort, the filing of papers with the clerk shall be deemed to satisfy that service requirement and there need be no separate service upon the clerk. Mail may be addressed to a post office box in lieu of a street address only if the sender cannot by diligent effort determine the addressee's street address or if the post office does not make street-address delivery to the addressee. The specific facts underlying the diligent effort required by this rule shall be recited in the proof of service required by R. 1:5-3. If, however, proof of diligent inquiry as to a party's whereabouts has already been filed within six months prior to service under this rule, a new diligent inquiry need not be made provided the proof of service required by R. 1:5-3 asserts that the party making service has no knowledge of any facts different from those recited in the prior proof of diligent inquiry.
Note: Source - R R. 1:7-12(d), 1:10-10(b), 1:11-2(c), 2:11-2(c), 3:11-1(b), 4:5-2(a) (first four sentences); amended July 16, 1981 to be effective September 14, 1981; amended July 13, 1994 to be effective September 1, 1994; amended July 28, 2004 to be effective September 1, 2004; amended July 23, 2010 to be effective September 1, 2010.
1:5-3. Proof of Service
Proof of service of every paper referred to in R. 1:5-1 may be made (1) by an acknowledgment of service, signed by the attorney for a party or signed and acknowledged by the party, or (2) by an affidavit of the person making service, or (3) by a certification of service appended to the paper to be filed and signed by the attorney for the party making service. If service has been made by mail the affidavit or certification shall state that the mailing was to the last known address of the person served. A proof of service made by affidavit or certification shall state the name and address of each attorney served, identifying the party that attorney represents, and the name and address of any pro se party. The proof shall be filed with the court promptly and in any event before action is to be taken on the matter by the court. Where service has been made by registered or certified mail, filing of the return receipt card with the court shall not be required. Failure to make proof of service does not affect the validity of the service, and the court at any time may allow the proof to be amended or supplied unless an injustice would result.
Note: Source-R.R. 4:5-2(b), 4:88-10 (fifth sentence); amended July 17, 1975 to be effective September 8, 1975; amended July 29, 1977 to be effective September 6, 1977; amended June 29, 1990 to be effective September 4, 1990; amended July 12, 2002 to be effective September 3, 2002.
1:5-4. Service by Mail or Courier: When Complete
 (a) Service by Ordinary Mail if Registered or Certified Mail Is Required and Is Refused. Where under any rule, provision is made for service by certified or registered mail, service may also be made by ordinary mail simultaneously or thereafter, unless simultaneous service is required under these rules.
 (b) Service Complete on Mailing. Except for motions that are governed by R. 1:6-3(c), service by mail of any paper referred to in R. 1:5-1, when authorized by rule or court order, shall be complete upon mailing of the ordinary mail. If no ordinary mailing is made, service shall be deemed complete upon the date of acceptance of the certified or registered mail. If service is simultaneously made by ordinary mail and certified or registered mail, service shall be deemed complete on mailing of the ordinary mail. If service is not made simultaneously and the addressee accepts the certified or registered mail, service shall be deemed complete on the date of the acceptance. If the addressee fails to claim or refuses to accept delivery of certified or registered mail, service shall be deemed complete on mailing of the ordinary mail.
 (c) Service by Commercial Courier. Service by a commercial courier of a paper referred to in R. 1:5-1, except for motions, which are governed by R. 1:6-3, shall be complete upon the courier's receipt of the paper from the sender, provided the courier's regular business is delivery service, and provided further that it guarantees delivery to the addressee by the end of the next business day following the courier's receipt from the sender.
Note: Source - R.R. 4:5-2(a) (fifth sentence). Paragraph (a) adopted and former rule designated (b) June 29, 1973 to be effective September 10, 1973; amended November 1, 1985 to be effective January 2, 1986; paragraph (b) amended and paragraph (c) added July 13, 1994 to be effective September 1, 1994; paragraph (b) amended July 10, 1998 to be effective September 1, 1998; paragraph (a) amended July 28, 2004 to be effective September 1, 2004; paragraphs (a) and (b) amended July 27, 2006 to be effective September 1, 2006..
1:5-5. Service; Numerous Defendants
In any civil action in which there are unusually large numbers of defendants, the court,upon motion or on its own initiative, may order that service of the pleadings of the defendants and replies thereto need not be made as between the defendants and that any cross-claim, counterclaim, or matter constituting an avoidance or affirmative defense contained therein shall be deemed to be denied or avoided by all other parties and that the filing of any such pleadings and service thereof upon the plaintiff, or an adverse party in a cross-claim, constitutes due notice of it to the parties. In any such action the court may designate certain parties as representatives for receipt of service for all defendants similarly situated and may order that service of pleadings, motions and other papers filed in the action may be served upon such representatives with the same effect as if all such defendants had been served. A copy of every such order shall be served upon the parties in interest in such manner and form as the court directs.
Note: Source-R.R. 4:5-3.
1:5-6. Filing
 (a) Time for Filing. In any trial court, unless otherwise stated, all papers required to be served by R. 1:5-1 shall be filed with the court either before service or promptly thereafter, unless the rule requiring service or filing provides otherwise. Whenever in these rules provision is made for the publication, mailing or posting of notice, proof thereof shall be filed with the court within 20 days after the publication or mailing or posting.
 (b) What Constitutes Filing With the Court. Except as otherwise provided by R. 1:6-4 (motion papers), R. 1:6-5 (briefs), R. 4:42-1(e) (orders and judgments), and R. 5:5-4 (motions in Family actions), a paper is filed with the trial court if the original is filed as follows:
• (1) In civil actions in the Superior Court, Law Division, and in actions in the Superior Court, Chancery Division, General Equity, except mortgage and tax foreclosure actions, with the deputy clerk of the Superior Court in the county of venue;
• (2) In criminal actions in the Superior Court, Law Division, with the Criminal Division Manager in the county of venue, as designee of the deputy clerk of the Superior Court;
• (3) In mortgage and tax foreclosure actions, with the Clerk of the Superior Court, unless and until the action is deemed contested and the papers have been sent by the Clerk to the county of venue, in which event subsequent papers shall be filed with the deputy clerk of the Superior Court in the county of venue;
• (4) In actions in the Chancery Division, Family Part, with the deputy clerk of the Superior Court in the county of venue if the action is a dissolution action, with the Surrogate of the county of venue if the action is for adoption, and in all other actions, with the Family Division Manager in the county of venue, as designee of the deputy clerk of the Superior Court;
• (5) In probate matters in the Surrogate's Court, with the Surrogate, and in actions in the Chancery Division, Probate Part, with the Surrogate of the county of venue as deputy clerk of the Superior Court;
• (6) In actions of the Special Civil Part, as provided by Part VI of these rules;
• (7) In actions in the Tax Court, as provided by Part VIII of these rules.
 The foregoing notwithstanding, in any case the judge or, at the judge's chambers, a member of the staff may accept papers for filing if they show the filing date and the judge's name and office. The filed papers shall be forwarded forthwith to the appropriate office.
 (c) Nonconforming Papers. The clerk shall file all papers presented for filing and may notify the person filing if such papers do not conform to these rules, except that
• (1) the paper shall be returned stamped "Received but not Filed (date)" if it is presented for filing unaccompanied by any of the following:
• (A) the required filing fee; or
• (B) a completed Case Information Statement as required by R. 4:5-1 in the form set forth in Appendices XII-B1 or XII-B2 to these rules; or
• (C) in Family Part actions, the affidavit of insurance coverage required by R. 5:4-2(f), the Parents Education Program registration fee required by N.J.S.A. 2A:34-12.2, the Affidavit of Verification and Non-Collusion as required by R. 5:4-2(c), the Confidential Litigant Information Sheet as required by R. 5:4-2(g) in the form prescribed by the Administrative Director of the Courts, or the Affidavit or Certification of Notification of Complementary Dispute Resolution Alternatives as required by R. 5:4-2 (h) in the form prescribed in Appendix XXVII-A or XXVII-B of these rules; or
• (D) the signature of an attorney permitted to practice law in this State pursuant to R. 1:21-1 or the signature of a party appearing pro se, provided, however, that a pro se appearance is provided for by these rules; or
• (E) a certification of title search as required by R. 4:64-1(a).
• If a paper is returned under this rule, it shall be accompanied by a notice advising that if the paper is retransmitted together with the required signature, document or fee, as appropriate, within ten days after the date of the clerk's notice, filing will be deemed to have been made on the stamped receipt date.
• (2) if an answer is presented by a defendant against whom default has been entered, the clerk shall return the same stamped "Received but not Filed (date)" with notice that the defendant may move to vacate the default.
• (3) a demand for trial de novo may be rejected and returned if not filed within the time prescribed in R. 4:21A-6 or if it is submitted for filing by a party in default or whose answer has been suppressed.
• (4) a paper shall be returned stamped "Received but not Filed (date)" if it does not conform to the requirements of R. 1:4-9 with notice that if the document is retransmitted on conforming paper within 10 days after the date of the clerk's notice, filing will be deemed to have been made on the stamped receipt date.
 (d) Misfiled Papers. If papers are sent to the wrong filing office, they shall be stamped "Received but not Filed (date)" and transmitted by that office to the proper filing office and a notice shall be sent by the transmitting office to the filer of the paper advising of the transmittal. The stamped received date shall be deemed to be the date of filing.
 (e) Attorneys Answerable for Clerk's Fees. The attorney of record in every action shall be answerable for the clerk's lawful fees and charges.
Note: Source – R. R.1:7-11, 1:12-3(b), 2:10, 3:11-4(d), 4:5-5(a), 4:5-6(a) (first and second sentence), 4:5-7 (first sentence), 5:5-1(a). Paragraphs (b) and (c) amended July 14, 1972 to be effective September 5, 1972; paragraph (c) amended November 27, 1974 to be effective April 1, 1975; paragraph (b) amended November 7, 1988 to be effective January 2, 1989; paragraph (b) amended June 29, 1990 to be effective September 4, 1990; paragraph (c) amended November 26, 1990 to be effective April 1, 1991; paragraphs (b) and (c) amended, new text substituted for paragraph (d) and former paragraph (d) redesignated paragraph (e) July 13, 1994 to be effective September 1, 1994; paragraph (b)(1) amended, new paragraph (b)(2) adopted, paragraphs (b)(2), (3), (4), (5) and (6) redesignated paragraphs (b)(3), (4), (5), (6) and (7), and newly designated paragraph (b)(4) amended July 13, 1994 to be effective January 1, 1995; paragraphs (b)(1),(3) and (4) amended June 28, 1996 to be effective September 1, 1996; paragraph (b)(4) amended July 10, 1998 to be effective September 1, 1998; paragraph (c) amended July 5, 2000 to be effective September 5, 2000; paragraphs (c)(1) and (c)(3) amended July 28, 2004 to be effective September 1, 2004; subparagraph (c)(1)(E) adopted, paragraphs (c)(2) and (c)(3) amended, and paragraph (c)(4) adopted July 27, 2006 to be effective September 1, 2006; paragraph (b) amended June 15, 2007 to be effective September 1, 2007; subparagraph (c)(1)(C) amended July 16, 2009 to be effective September 1, 2009; subparagraph (c)(1)(E) amended December 20, 2010 to be effective immediately; subparagraphs (b)(4) and (c)(1)(C) amended July 21, 2011 to be effective September 1, 2011; subparagraph (c)(2) amended July 19, 2012 to be effective September 4, 2012.
RULE 1:6. Motions And Briefs In The Trial Courts
1:6-1. Applicability of Rule
Rule 1:6 shall apply to all trial courts, except the municipal courts and except as otherwise provided by R. 3:26-2(d) (motions for bail reductions), R. 5:5-4 (motions in civil family actions), and R. 6:3-3 (motions in the Special Civil Part).
Note: Amended November 7, 1988 to be effective January 2, 1989; amended July 13, 1994 to be effective January 1, 1995; amended January 21, 1999 to be effective April 5, 1999.
1:6-2. Form of Motion; Hearing
 (a) Generally. An application to the court for an order shall be by motion, or in special cases, by order to show cause. A motion, other than for bail pursuant to R. 3:26-2(d) or one made during a trial or hearing, shall be by notice of motion in writing unless the court permits it to be made orally. Every motion shall state the time and place when it is to be presented to the court, the grounds upon which it is made and the nature of the relief sought, and, as to motions filed in the Law Division-Civil Part only, the discovery end date or a statement that no such date has been assigned. The motion shall be accompanied by a proposed form of order in accordance with R. 3:1-4(a) or R. 4:42-1(e), as applicable. The form of order shall note whether the motion was opposed or unopposed. If the motion or response thereto relies on facts not of record or not subject of judicial notice, it shall be supported by affidavit made in compliance with R. 1:6-6. The motion shall be deemed uncontested and there shall be no right to argue orally in opposition unless responsive papers are timely filed and served stating with particularity the basis of the opposition to the relief sought. If the motion is withdrawn or the matter settled, counsel shall forthwith inform the court.
 (b) Civil Motions in Chancery Division and Specially Assigned Cases; Affidavit of Non-Involvement in Medical Malpractice Actions.
• (1) Generally. When a civil action has been specially assigned to an individual judge for case management and disposition of all pretrial and trial proceedings and in all cases pending in the Superior Court, Chancery Division, the judge, on receipt of motion papers, shall determine the mode and scheduling of the disposition of the motion. Except as provided in R. 5:5-4, motions filed in causes pending in the Superior Court, Chancery Division, Family Part, shall be governed by this paragraph.
• (2) Motion for Dismissal Pursuant to N.J.S.A 2A:53A-40. A party moving for dismissal of the action on the ground of non-involvement in the cause of action pursuant to N.J.S.A. 2A:53A-40 of the New Jersey Medical Care Access and Responsibility and Patients First Act, N.J.S.A. 2A:53A-37 to 42, shall annex to the notice of motion an affidavit of non-involvement that complies with Rule 1:6-6. In the absence of opposition filed in accordance with Rule 1:6-3, the court shall enter an order dismissing the action as to the moving party. If opposition is filed, the court shall proceed in accordance with this rule.
 (c) Civil and Family Part Discovery and Calendar Motions. Every motion in a civil case or a case in the Chancery Division, Family Part, not governed by paragraph (b), involving any aspect of pretrial discovery or the calendar, shall be listed for disposition only if accompanied by a certification stating that the attorney for the moving party has either (1) personally conferred orally or has made a specifically described good faith attempt to confer orally with the attorney for the opposing party in order to resolve the issues raised by the motion by agreement or consent order and that such effort at resolution has been unsuccessful, or (2) advised the attorney for the opposing party by letter, after the default has occurred, that continued non-compliance with a discovery obligation will result in an appropriate motion being made without further attempt to resolve the matter. A motion to extend the time for discovery shall have annexed thereto either a copy of all prior orders granting or denying an extension of the discovery period or a certification that there have been no such prior orders. The moving papers shall also set forth the date of any scheduled pretrial conference, arbitration proceeding scheduled pursuant to R. 4:21A, calendar call or trial, or state that no such dates have been fixed. Discovery and calendar motions shall be disposed of on the papers unless, on at least two days notice, the court specifically directs oral argument on its own motion or, in its discretion, on a party's request. A movant's request for oral argument shall be made either in the moving papers or reply; a respondent's request for oral argument shall be made in the answering papers.
 (d) Civil and Family Part Motions-Oral Argument. Except as otherwise provided by R. 5:5-4 (family actions), no motion shall be listed for oral argument unless a party requests oral argument in the moving papers or in timely-filed answering or reply papers, or unless the court directs. A party requesting oral argument may, however, condition the request on the motion being contested. If the motion involves pretrial discovery or is directly addressed to the calendar, the request shall be considered only if accompanied by a statement of reasons and shall be deemed denied unless the court otherwise advises counsel prior to the return day. As to all other motions, the request shall be granted as of right.
 (e) Oral Argument - Mode. The court in civil matters, on its own motion or on a party's request, may direct argument of any motion by telephone conference without court appearance. A verbatim record shall be made of all such telephone arguments and the rulings thereon.
 (f) Order; Record Notation. If the court has made findings of fact and conclusions of law explaining its disposition of the motion, the order shall indicate whether the findings and conclusions were written or oral and the date on which they were rendered. However, if the motion was argued and the court intends to place its findings on the record at a later date, it shall give all parties one day's notice, which may be telephonic, of the time and place it shall do so. If no such findings have been made, the court shall append to the order a statement of reasons for its disposition if it concludes that explanation is either necessary or appropriate. If the order directs a plenary or other evidential hearing, it shall specifically describe the issues to be so tried. A written order or record notation shall be entered by the court memorializing the disposition made on a telephone motion.
Note: Source - R.R. 3:11-2, 4:8-5(a) (second sentence). Amended July 14, 1972 to be effective September 5, 1972; amended November 27, 1974 to be effective April 1, 1975; amended July 24, 1978 to be effective September 11, 1978; former rule amended and redesignated as paragraph (a) and paragraphs (b), (c), (d), and (e) adopted July 16, 1981 to be effective September 14, 1981; paragraph (c) amended July 15, 1982 to be effective September 13, 1982; paragraph (c) amended July 22, 1983 to be effective September 12, 1983; paragraph (b) amended December 20, 1983 to be effective December 31, 1983; paragraphs (a) and (c) amended and paragraph (f) adopted November 1, 1985 to be effective January 2, 1986; paragraph (a) amended November 7, 1988 to be effective January 2, 1989; paragraph (c) amended and paragraph (d) caption and text amended June 29, 1990 to be effective September 4, 1990; paragraph (d) amended July 14, 1992 to be effective September 1, 1992; paragraph (c) amended July 13, 1994 to be effective September 1, 1994; paragraph (a) amended July 13, 1994 to be effective January 1, 1995; paragraphs (a) and (f) amended January 21, 1999 to be effective April 5, 1999; paragraphs (c) and (d) amended July 5, 2000 to be effective September 5, 2000; paragraph (a) amended July 28, 2004 to be effective September 1, 2004; paragraphs (b), (c), and (f) amended July 27, 2006 to be effective September 1, 2006; paragraph (b) caption amended, former text of paragraph (b) captioned and redesignated as subparagraph (b)(1), and new subparagraph (b)(2) adopted July 9, 2008 to be effective September 1, 2008; paragraph (c) amended July 23, 2010 to be effective September 1, 2010.
1:6-3. Filing and Service of Motions and Cross-Motions
 (a) Motions Generally. Other than an ex parte motion and except as otherwise provided by R. 4:46-1 ( summary judgment) and R. 5:5-4(c) (post judgment motions), a notice of motion shall be filed and served not later than 16 days before the specified return date unless otherwise provided by court order, which may be applied for ex parte. Thus, for example, if the return date of the motion is a Friday, the motion must be filed and served not later than the Wednesday, 16 days prior. If a motion is supported by affidavit or certification, the affidavit or certification shall be filed and served with the motion. Except as provided by R. 4:49-1(b) (motion for new trial), any opposing affidavits, certifications or objections filed pursuant to R. 1:6-2 shall be filed and served not later than 8 days before the return date unless the court relaxes that time. Thus, for example, if the return date is on a Friday, any response must be filed and served no later than Thursday of the prior week. Reply papers responding to opposing affidavits or certifications shall be filed and served not later than 4 days before the return date unless the court otherwise orders. Thus, for example, such papers must be filed and served on Monday for a return date of the following Friday. No other papers may be filed without leave of court.
 (b) Cross-Motions. A cross-motion may be filed and served by the responding party together with that party's opposition to the motion and noticed for the same return date only if it relates to the subject matter of the original motion, except in Family Part motions brought under Part V of these Rules where a notice of cross-motion may seek relief unrelated to that sought in the original motion. A cross-motion relating to the subject matter of the original motion shall, if timely filed pursuant to this rule, relate back to the date of the filing of the original motion. The original moving party's response to the cross-motion shall be filed and served as provided by paragraph (a) for reply papers. The court may, however, on request of the original moving party, or on its own motion, enlarge the time for filing an answer to the cross-motion, or fix a new return date for both. No reply papers may be served or filed by the cross-movant without leave of court.
 (c) Completion of Service. For purposes of this rule, service of motion papers is complete only on receipt at the office of adverse counsel or the address of a pro se party. If service is by ordinary mail, receipt will be presumed on the third business day after mailing.
Note: Source -- R.R. 3:11-1, 4:6-3(a); amended July 24, 1978 to be effective September 11, 1978; amended July 16, 1979 to be effective September 10, 1979; amended July 16, 1981 to be effective September 14, 1981; amended November 1, 1985 to be effective January 2, 1986; amended June 29, 1990 to be effective September 4, 1990; amended July 13, 1994 to be effective September 1, 1994; amended and paragraphs (a), (b) and (c) designated July 10, 1998 to be effective September 1, 1998; paragraph (a) amended July 5, 2000 to be effective September 5, 2000; paragraph (b) amended July 12, 2002 to be effective September 3, 2002; paragraph (b) amended June 15, 2007 to be effective September 1, 2007; paragraph (b) amended July 16, 2009 to be effective September 1, 2009.
1:6-4. Superior Court; Place for Filing Motions, Orders to Show Cause and Orders
The original of all motion papers, orders to show cause and orders in civil actions in the Superior Court shall be filed in accordance with R. 1:5-6(b), except that in all actions in the Chancery Division or specially assigned to a judge of the Law Division or, if the judge to whom the motion is assigned is known, a copy of all motion papers shall also be simultaneously submitted to the judge.
Note: Source - R.R. 3:11-1, 4:5-5(b) (first sentence), 4:5-6(b); amended July 16, 1981 to be effective September 14, 1981; caption amended and paragraphs (a) and (b) adopted November 7,1988 to be effective January 2, 1989; paragraph (a) amended June 29, 1990 to be effective September 4, 1990; former caption and text replaced July 13, 1994 to be effective September 1, 1994; amended June 28, 1996 to be effective September 1, 1996; amended July 27, 2006 to be effective September 1, 2006.
1:6-5. Briefs
The moving party's brief in support of a motion shall, pursuant to R. 1:6-3, be served and submitted to the court with the moving papers. The respondent shall serve and submit an answering brief at least 8 days before the return date. A reply brief, if any, shall be served and submitted at least 4 days before the return date. Briefs may not be submitted after the time fixed by this rule or by court order, including the pretrial order, without leave of court, which may be applied for ex parte.
Note: Source-R.R. 4:5-5(b) (first sentence), 4:5-10(a)(b)(c)(e); paragraph (a) amended July 16, 1979 to be effective September 10, 1979; paragraphs (a) and (b) amended July 13, 1994 to be effective September 1, 1994; amended July 10, 1998 to be effective September 1, 1998; amended July 5, 2000 to be effective September 5, 2000.
1:6-6. Evidence on Motions; Affidavits
If a motion is based on facts not appearing of record, or not judicially noticeable, the court may hear it on affidavits made on personal knowledge, setting forth only facts which are admissible in evidence to which the affiant is competent to testify and which may have annexed thereto certified copies of all papers or parts thereof referred to therein. The court may direct the affiant to submit to cross-examination, or hear the matter wholly or partly on oral testimony or depositions.
Note: Source-R.R. 4:44-4 (second sentence), 4:58-6.
1:6-7 Reading of Moving Papers and Briefs in Advance
Insofar as possible judges shall read moving papers and briefs in advance of the hearing and to this end, when briefs are submitted in the trial courts, the matter shall be assigned insofar as possible to the judge in advance of the hearing. The parties shall promptly advise the court if a motion is withdrawn or the matter settled prior to the hearing date.
Note: Source - R.R.1:30-1; amended July 27, 2006 to be effective September 1, 2006.
1:6-8. Issuance of Process and Entry of Judgment
All motions and applications in the clerk's office for issuing original and mesne process,for issuing final process to enforce and execute judgments, for entering defaults and for other proceedings which do not require allowance or order of the court, are grantable of course by the clerk, whose action may be suspended or altered or rescinded by the court for good cause.
Note: Source-R.R. 4:118-7, 7:19-6; amended July 13, 1994 to be effective September 1, 1994.

NEED HELP WITH YOUR NEW JERSEY CASE?
Handling your New Jersey case wrong from the beginning may only cost you more money and time in the end!! Do it right the first time by seeking legal advice from a competent New Jersey lawyer!
Let the Law Office of Paul DePetris help you with your New Jersey case. Not all New Jersey cases require you to pay expensive legal fees to get legal help.

WHY SHOULD NEW JERSEY PRO SE PLAINTIFFS AND NEW JERSEY PRO SE DEFENDANTS SEEK HELP FROM A NEW JERSEY LAWYER?
Handling your New Jersey case wrong from the beginning may only cost you more money and time in the end!! Do it right the first time by seeking legal advice from a competent New Jersey lawyer!
Many New Jersey pro se plaintiffs and New Jersey pro se defendants make the mistake of not consulting a New Jersey lawyer before filing New Jersey Court papers only to later learn that the New Jersey pro se plaintiffs and New Jersey pro se defendants made serious mistakes that could cause them to lose their New Jersey case. Let the Law Office of Paul DePetris help you with your New Jersey case.

CAN I RELY ON NEW JERSEY COURT PERSONNEL FOR LEGAL ADVICE?
New Jersey Court employees cannot give you “free” legal advice and a New Jersey Court judge may refuse to let you claim that you were right in taking an action (or in deciding not to take action) because you relied on advice from such employees. Most New Jersey Court employees are not trained New Jersey attorneys and therefore, they may not know what advice to give you. Working at the New Jersey Court as a non-judge is not the same as practicing law.

CAN I RELY ON NEW JERSEY COURT FORMS PROVIDED BY THE NEW JERSEY COURT?
The New Jersey Court usually provides certain types of New Jersey Court legal forms to the public and those forms are often very helpful. However, beware relying on New Jersey Court forms provided by the New Jersey Court – the New Jersey Court forms are often deceptively simple, while New Jersey cases often are much more complex than they first appear to be. There is simply no substitute for a competent New Jersey attorney licensed to practice law in New Jersey who has experience handling New Jersey cases. New Jersey Court forms don’t talk and New Jersey Court forms and their directions rarely, if ever, cover every possible situation, set of facts or legal issue that may arise in a New Jersey case. Each New Jersey case has its own particular legal issues and therefore, its own challenges. If you can afford a competent New Jersey attorney, it is best to have the New Jersey attorney prepare your New Jersey Court paperwork for you.

CAN I HANDLE A NEW JERSEY CASE MYSELF?
Many New Jersey pro se plaintiffs and New Jersey pro se defendants can and do successfully handle New Jersey cases, from filing the first paperwork to the collection of a New Jersey Court judgment. However, many other New Jersey pro se plaintiffs and New Jersey pro se defendants also make mistakes that lead to the dismissal of their New Jersey cases or that result in the entry of a New Jersey Court money judgment against them. The greater the money at stake, the greater the reason to consider using the services of a competent attorney licensed to practice law in New Jersey to handle part or all of the New Jersey case. The following are reasons to use an attorney to handle part or all of your New Jersey case:
• New Jersey Court fees often change
• New Jersey Court rules often change
• New Jersey Court employees cannot give you “free” legal advice and a New Jersey Court judge may refuse to let you claim that you were right in taking an action (or in deciding not to take action) because you relied on advice from such employees
• New Jersey Court forms available on websites may not cover every situation you may face in Court
• each New Jersey case has its own particular legal issues and therefore, its own challenges
• it is very common for New Jersey pro se plaintiffs and New Jersey pro se defendants to file inadequate or incorrect New Jersey Court complaints that result in the New Jersey Court complaints or answers to New Jersey Court complaints being rejected by the New Jersey Court or being dismissed by the New Jersey Court after filing and before or after trial because of procedural deficiencies.
• it is not uncommon for judges to get very frustrated by an unrepresented party’s lack of preparation or ignorance of the facts or law of the New Jersey case.
• a Court has the power to punish unprepared New Jersey plaintiffs and New Jersey defendants, such as by throwing their New Jersey case out of Court or limiting what they can present at the New Jersey Court trial.
• New Jersey has many published cases, laws, regulations, Court rules and rules of evidence that can be very tricky to understand and that can be used to prevent you from doing much of what you want to do at the New Jersey Court trial.
• it is very common for Courts to refuse to allow a party to use or refer to documents or items at the New Jersey Court trial that the person themselves never prepared. Often New Jersey plaintiffs and New Jersey defendants stumble into New Jersey Court with a video, photograph, bill or affidavit or other form of written statement, thinking they are going to use it as proof that they lost money or that they are not responsible for someone else’s damages, only to have a New Jersey Court judge tell the New Jersey plaintiffs and New Jersey defendants that it is not going to even consider such items or documents.
• without the proper preparation, items and documents may never be considered by the New Jersey Court. Also, if there are any legal issues to be dealt with at the New Jersey Court trial, you must be prepared to argue them, which may require you to refer to Court rules, evidence rules, laws, regulations or published cases.
• you cannot show up at the New Jersey Court expecting the judge hearing your New Jersey case to explain Court rules, evidence rules, Court procedure or the details of the law that applies to your New Jersey case. The judge hearing your New Jersey case is not permitted to give you legal advice.

It is important to remember that even if you have an attorney, you could lose your New Jersey case. Hiring an attorney to handle part or all of your New Jersey case does not guarantee your success. However, it may provide what is needed to win your New Jersey case or to avoid certain mistakes.

DOES THE LAW OFFICE OF PAUL DEPETRIS HAVE EXPERIENCE HANDLING NEW JERSEY CASES?
Yes. Paul DePetris has performed the following tasks:
• handled New Jersey cases for plaintiffs and defendants across New Jersey, from Bergen County New Jersey to Cumberland County New Jersey, including representations of individuals, small businesses and large corporations.
• settled New Jersey cases for plaintiffs and defendants across New Jersey.
• reviewed many New Jersey Court settlement agreements.
• enforced many New Jersey Court settlement agreements.
• provided New Jersey pro se plaintiffs and New Jersey pro se defendants with New Jersey Court legal advice and prepared New Jersey Court legal forms
• prepared and filed many New Jersey Court complaints
• tried New Jersey Court jury trials
• mediated many New Jersey cases
• argued New Jersey Court motions
• handled New Jersey Court proof hearings
• handled New Jersey Court post judgment collection proceedings

Mr. DePetris has appeared before the Superior Court of New Jersey in the following counties:
• Atlantic County New Jersey Court
• Bergen County New Jersey Court
• Burlington County New Jersey Court
• Camden County New Jersey Court
• Cape May County New Jersey Court
• Cumberland County New Jersey Court
• Essex County New Jersey Court
• Gloucester County New Jersey Court
• Hudson County New Jersey Court
• Mercer County New Jersey Court
• Middlesex County New Jersey Court
• Monmouth County New Jersey Court
• Morris County New Jersey Court
• Ocean County New Jersey Court
• Passaic County New Jersey Court
• Salem County New Jersey Court
• Somerset County New Jersey Court
• Sussex County New Jersey Court
• Union County New Jersey Court
• Warren County New Jersey Court

IN WHAT NEW JERSEY COUNTIES WILL THE LAW OFFICE OF PAUL DEPETRIS HANDLE NEW JERSEY CASES?
The Law Office of Paul DePetris offers to handle and help individuals and businesses with New Jersey Court Claims cases in North, Central and Southern New Jersey, including cases in the following New Jersey counties:
• Atlantic County New Jersey Court
• Bergen County New Jersey Court
• Burlington County New Jersey Court
• Camden County New Jersey Court
• Cape May County New Jersey Court
• Cumberland County New Jersey Court
• Essex County New Jersey Court
• Gloucester County New Jersey Court
• Hudson County New Jersey Court
• Mercer County New Jersey Court
• Middlesex County New Jersey Court
• Monmouth County New Jersey Court
• Morris County New Jersey Court
• Ocean County New Jersey Court
• Passaic County New Jersey Court
• Salem County New Jersey Court
• Somerset County New Jersey Court
• Sussex County New Jersey Court
• Union County New Jersey Court
• Warren County New Jersey Court

WHAT IF I DON’T HAVE ENOUGH MONEY TO HIRE AN ATTORNEY TO HANDLE MY NEW JERSEY CASE FROM BEGINNING TO END?
In many situations, the Law Office of Paul DePetris offers alternatives to handling New Jersey cases for an hourly fee, such as by offering to handle your New Jersey case up to trial for a fixed fee or to help you handle your New Jersey case by yourself. Such flexible methods may allow you to keep the amount legal fees you spend on your New Jersey case to a fixed sum, while providing you the help you need to handle your New Jersey case. For a no obligation phone consultation about what the Firm might be able to do for you, call Mr. DePetris at 609-714-2020 or send an email to Mr. DePetris.
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